The INGV geophysical observatories are managed by the Sections. The dual task of research and surveillance makes the heritage of observatories managed by INGV unique. Through it, INGV is committed to achieving ever higher measurement standards, in order to understand the processes active on the planet and to respond to society with increasing readiness, clarity and effectiveness.
INGV manages a network of permanent geomagnetic observatories for monitoring variations in the earth's magnetic field, and a network of ionospheric observatories for monitoring and studying the ionized upper atmosphere, which are flanked by stations for measuring ionospheric scintillations, stratospheric ozone, the concentration of chemical compounds in the mid-atmosphere (e.g. H2O and O3 ) and the columnar water vapor content. The geophysical observatories are distributed throughout the country, in the Mediterranean area, in the North Polar Region (Svalbard, Greenland), in the South Polar Region (Concordia and Mario Zucchelli Station, SANSA Station and EACF Station), and in South America (Argentina).