Field emission electron microscope
Analog laboratory: ash resuspension experiment in the wind tunnel
In recent decades, the rapid development of knowledge on technology and materials science has made it possible to build instruments capable of reproducing the environmental conditions that control the dynamics of chemical-physical processes inside and on the earth's surface. Among these processes, those relating to seismicity and magmatism-volcanism are of particular economic and social importance due to the number of victims and the extent of damage they cause.
In this context, the Laboratory for High Pressures and High Temperatures of Experimental Geophysics and Volcanology has been developed at the Rome 1 Section of the INGV.
The experimental study of petrological, geophysical and volcanological processes that occur inside and on the surface of the Earth is the objective of the Laboratory which has developed into two main sectors, microanalytical and experimental. The microanalytical sector is fundamental for the characterization of materials. It is equipped with an electron microprobe for the compositional study of geological and experimental materials and a field emission electron microscope for high resolution textural and morphometric analyses. The laboratory is available to a large number of both INGV and external researchers.
On average, 30 research proposals concerning the study of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and the properties of materials are developed every year. The experimental sector is made up of many apparatuses which have also partly been developed within the laboratory itself. The main applications concern (i) the study of the chemical-physical properties of magmas, (ii) the study of the physical properties of rocks and (iii) the analogical approach to the study of eruptive dynamics and fracture.
Both Italian and foreign researchers and technologists work in the laboratory and today it represents an international point of reference for experimental research in the geophysical and volcanological sector. Every year researchers from all over the world are hosted, while the training activity for students from Italian and foreign universities is guaranteed through internships, degree theses and research doctorates. Since 2004, the development of the Laboratory for High Pressures and High Temperatures has seen the implementation of numerous national and international projects which in some cases see the laboratory itself also involved as a host institution.
The High Pressure-High Temperature Laboratory of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Rome (hereafter HPHT Lab) is a multidisciplinary facility originally founded in 2002.
The HPHT Lab includes three areas of investigation: 1) experimental testing of natural and synthetic materials; 2) microanalytical and physical analyses; 3) analog experiments. Volcanology, petrology, mineralogy, seismology, and rock physics are the main, broad areas of research at the HPHT Lab.
Concerning the experimental investigations, research in magma evolution and rheology, and on mantle petrology are carried out with high-pressure and high-temperature apparatus, including furnaces, piston-cylinder, and multi-anvil devices, covering conditions from surface eruption of magma to middle mantle.
The frictional properties of faults and rocks are investigated under a wide range of slip rates and dynamics and under variable boundary conditions using unique rotary shear apparatus and large-scale bi-axial press. In addition, rock physics/mechanics studies, from rock permeability to fracturing and degassing can also be investigated with the above apparatus and with more classical devices.
The analytical facilities include a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and an Electron Micro Probe Analyzer specifically tuned for natural rock analyses. Accessory to these are an helium pycnometer, particle size analyzer, sieves, and other basic instruments.
The analog investigations are carried out in a specific area where ad-hoc, temporary set-ups are developed. Analog materials are characterized using a rheometer, and the experiments are recorded and analyzed using a range of visual documentations, spanning from time-lapse cameras to high-definition and high-speed camcorders.
The analog laboratory focuses mostly on explosive volcanism and the related products and processes, including the formation and release of Taylor bubbles, pyroclast ejection during supersonic eruptions, and the sedimentation and aggregation of volcanic ash particles.
The HPHT Lab also hosts and develops new systems for the in-situ study of explosive volcanic eruptions by combining high-speed, high-definition imaging in the visible and thermal infrared wavelengths with acoustic recording. Investigated processes cover the ejection of volcanic ash and bombs, their setting and potential hazard, the sources of volcanic sound, and shifting styles of explosive volcanic activity.
The sharing of facilities and working space in between researchers with such a broad variety of backgrounds is a key component of the HPHT Lab, eventually leading to interdisciplinary exchange, facilitating the development of new projects, and ultimately promoting a stimulating research environment.
Stefano Aretusini, Contract Researcher
Gianfilippo De Astis, Researcher
Elisabetta Del Bello, Researcher
Flavio Di Stefano, Contract Researcher
Giacomo Pozzi, Contract Researcher
Valeria Misiti, Technologist
Manuela Nazzari, Researcher
Tullio Ricci, Researcher
Elena Spagnuolo, Researcher
Laura Spina, Researcher
Jacopo Taddeucci, Senior Researcher
Quick Press - Piston Cylinder 3/4” and 1” pressure plates | Depth of the Earth
Bi-Tri-Axial Press (BRAVA) | RMP - ENG
Low to High Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA) | RMP - ENG
Car Carbon Coater | JEOL JEC-530
Fine coater | JEOL JFC-2300HR
High and low temperature furnaces | lenton
Impedance analyzer | Solartron SI1260
Digital oscilloscope | Tektronix DPO4032
Wave generator | Agilent 33250A
H-Frame presses 10 ton | enerpac
Uniaxial testing machine with double load cell (15 and 250 kN) and LVDT controller | Tecnotest
Precision balance | Sartorius
Optical and stereo microscopes | Leica DMRXP and Euromex
Ultra-high velocity, intensified, gated digital camera | Cordin 204-2
High Speed Digital Camcorder | Optronis and NAC 512 SC
Stereomicroscopes | Leica MZ9.5
Semi-automatic polisher | Buehler Minimet 1000
Power Supplies | Agilent 6575A
Helium Pycnometer | AccuPyc II 1340
Permeameter with double intensifier | Rock Physics
Rheometer MCR 301 Physics | Anton Parar
Vertical Furnace RHTV 120-300/18 | Nabertherm
High Temperature Furnace LHT 04/18 | Nabertherm
Cecchi data acquisition system | Applied Seismology
Rock drilling, cutting, and grinding equipment for sample preparation
Thermal High Speed Camera | FLIR SC645
Welder PUK U3 | Lampert
Laser line generator | Edmund optics
Precision test sieves | Endecotts
MGL-III Laser, 532nm 200mW, PSU-III-LED/Unit | Changchun New Industries
Multi-Wavelength Analyzer with Particle sizing according to ISO 13317 | LUMiReader-@PSA
Polarized Free-field Microphones 40AN 1/2”, Low Frequency (0.5Hz - 20kHz) | GRAS
PVG-500 Vacuum Gauge | Pirani
Petrographic microscope ECLIPSE E-50i POL | Nikon
Drying oven UF 75 | Memmert
4K digital camcorders | sony
High-speed digital camcorder| NAC Memrecam-HX6
Shock-tube apparatus (Jet-Buster) | INGV
High-speed digital camcorders | NAC 512 SC, Optronis CR600x2, NAC HX6, NAC HX3
Laser Range Finder | Vettronix VECTOR 21
Time Lapse Camera with 24-70 lens | Brinno TLC200 Pro
Precision Syringe Pumps | ISCO
Ash dispersal/settling apparatus (Ash-Buster) | INGV
MIUR PRIN Project 2017J277S9_004 | Time scales of solidification in magma: Applications to Volcanic Eruptions, Silicate Melts, Glasses, Glass-Ceramics | PI Carroll M., INGV RU leader Del Bello E.
NERC Urgency Grant NE/T009292/1 | The 3 July 2019 paroxysm at Stromboli volcano (Italy): is Stromboli playing by new rules? | PI Petrone C., INGV RU leader Scarlato P.
Sapienza University Projects | Quantitative understanding of magma reservoirs feeding large-scale volcanic eruptions at Campi Flegrei | PI Mollo S.
Sapienza University Projects | Kinetic controls on the partitioning of chemical species between olivine, clinopyroxene and melt during solidification of terrestrial and extraterrestrial basaltic rocks: Implications for the understanding of the crystallization conditions of magmas | PI Mollo S.
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne | | Frictional properties of Opalinus clay | PI Violay M.
Sapienza University Projects | The role of fluid pressure in the mechanics of slow earthquakes: insights from rock deformation experiments | PI Collettini C.
ENI, open contract n. 250003074 | FAST - Fault Stability | PI Tinti E.
European Research Project - ERC Consolidator Grant Project | NOFEAR: New Outlook on seismic faults: From EARthquake nucleation to arrest | PI Di Toro G.
European research project | EPOS 'European Plate Observing System' Implementation Phase, WP 16 Multiscale Laboratories | PI Cocco M.
European Research Infrastructures Transnational Access EUROPLANET 2020 | Agreement no.:654208 (15-EPN-003) | Approved proposal grant no. 10341: 'High-Speed Imaging Of Gas-Particle And Particle-Particle Interactions In Lab-Sized Volcanic Jets/plumes' | PI Taddeucci J., Del Bello E.
MIUR Award Projects 2015 | Ash-RESILIENCE A research infrastructure for volcanic ash hazard assessment to aviation and communities living near Italian active volcanoes | PI Costa A., Andronicus D.
MIUR TOP-DOWN Project FISR 2016 Task 3 | Magmatism and volcanism in Central Italy, Study of the Colli Albani volcanic system | PI Galadini F., Task leader Scarlato P.
European research project | EUROVOLC 'European Network of Observatories and Research Infrastructures for Volcanology' | PI Vog Fjiord K.
MIUR Free Research Project FISR 2016 | Gas hazard in Central Italy: Experimental investigation on the Radon emissions from volcanic rocks | PI Scarlato P.